Mindfulness-träning med kognitiv psykoterapiinriktning för patienter med långvarig smärta
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness training in the treatment of chronic pain, estimate the degree of mindfulness before and after intervention, and to describe the participants experience of mindfulness training. Mindfulness is defined as moment to moment, non-judgmental awareness. After the treatment of chronic pain 16 patients were offered and nine agreed to participate in mindfulness training. The intervention group took part in an 8-week group-program. The comparison group, not randomized, was 16 former patients. Measuring-instruments came from the National Register of Chronic pain (NRS); the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI), Pain & function, the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ), Life satisfaction (LiSat-11) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). The degree of mindfulness was evaluated with the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS). The participants' comments on their experience of mindfulness training were analysed. Results showed no significant improvement on the pain-related measures for the mindfulness-group in relation to the comparison group. The degree of mindfulness, however, showed a significant increase after mindfulness training both for the KIMS full scale and for the subscale Observe. The analysis of the participants' comments showed a high degree of importance attributed to the training program. They reported more calm, an increased meta-cognitive awareness, learning to breathe calmly and to live moment by moment. The study had too low a sample size for generalization. Further research is needed to examine ways of enhancing the effectiveness of the mindfulness meditation treatment and with a longitudinal perspective. The conclusion is that mindfulness training can be integrated in the treatment of chronic pain.