Nietzsche - "den stora hälsan"
Nietzsche, styrdokumenten och fyra idrottslärare om hälsa
Purpose and framing of questions.The objective of this study has been to problematize the concept of "health" by studying the philosopher Nietzsche's writings on the subject and by analyzing four PE teachers' thoughts on his view of health. This has been achieved by examining the following questions: What types of health does Nietzsche describe, and how are these promoted and inhibited according to him? How does a Nietzschean view of health stand visavi the one expressed by the Swedish national curriculum? What do teachers think about the Nietzschean concept of health and its potential applicability in physical education?Theory and Method.The literary study had a hermeneutic approach and was conducted according to a qualitative analytical method, in addition the so-called three-step method was used to create a definition of "health" on the basis of Nietzsche's use of the term. The source material consisted of Nietzsche's overall philosophical writings (ca 2600 pages) in order to give a complete picture of his view of health. The four interviews consisted of open enquiries, which were conducted according to a qualitative interviewing technique. The selection of respondents was made from convenience.Results.The study showed that Nietzsche uses "health" in varying contexts and applies it to several different subjects: he writes about cultural, spiritual, physical, mental health, and relates these categories to humanity as a whole and to the individual. Nietzsche argues that healthy human beings sublimate their urges instead of repressing them, look for invigorating challenges, preserve themselves through rest and a healthy lifestyle, are free from resentment, affirm life even when it is most difficult, and practice moderation. The view of health expressed in the curriculum is considerably narrower than Nietzsche's, as it relates the term "health" solely to questions of physical activity and lifestyle.Conclusion.We suggest that Nietzsche's health philosophy should be used by physical education teachers as a heuristic tool to problematize health, as his approach has a philosophical depth and an inquisitorial variation which rarely occurs in the health discourse of physical education teachers, which would be broadened, deepened, and stimulated by inviting more alternative approaches.